A Collection of Hymns and Prayers to the Indo-European Divine Twins

The Divine Twins, or the Horse Twins, are Proto-Indo-European deities or demi-gods. They appear in Indo-European mythologies, particularly those of the Vedic, Greek, and Baltic languages. There is evidence for them in Iranian, Latin, Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, Illyrian, and Armenian linguistic and mythological traditions, in addition to the aforementioned ones.  As Proto-Indo-European divinities, there isn’t any written or archaeological evidence that supports their existence. Instead, they have been reconstructed by scholars on comparative mythology and linguistics. There is an abundance of material on them in the Greek, Vedic, and Baltic traditions. I will explain a little background about the Horse Twins. Additionally, I will provide a few hymns from the Greek and Vedic traditions, and an original prayer.

The Divine Twins have agreed upon attributes. The first attribute is dual paternity, or having a divine father and human father. Another attribute is they are fertility gods. Next, they give divine aid in a battle and are saviors at sea. Fourth, they are known a single name or rhyming names. The fifth attribute is they are connected with horses. Sixth, they are of an astral character. A few more attributes are that they are magic healers and protectors of oaths.

The Divine Twins have linguistic cognates and comparative reflexes. Cognates are words in different languages that came from the same ancestral language. The linguistic cognates include Vedic, Lithuanian, Latvian, Greek, and Paelignian. The Divine Twins have different reflexes in various languages.  A reflex is a known derivative of an earlier form. It can be attested or reconstructed, and be a word or phoneme. Celtic, Germanic, Armenian, Iranian, Slavic, Illyrian, and Latin have Proto-Indo-European reflexes.

The Divine Twins are ancestral deities for many people living today, and can be included in a ritual practice or ancestor worship. In the prayer called “Prayer for the Proto-Indo-European Divine Twins” which is in the text below, I will attach known cognates and reflexes for the Divine Twins. The prayer is written in iambic trimeter.  The attributes of the Proto-Indo-European divinities are also included. The hymn has a dual structure, with an attribute described first and then there is a name to follow it. It is repeated throughout the prayer. There are also requests for aid and blessings. A shorter prayer is also included, which is entitled “A Short Prayer to the Proto-Indo-European Divine Twins.” The shorter prayer is more focused on the aid and help the Divine Twins can give to a worshipper.

The Tyndaridae

The Homeric Hymns and Homerica


[1] Bright-eyed Muses, tell of the Tyndaridae, the Sons of Zeus, glorious children of neat-ankled Leda, Castor the tamer of horses, and blameless Polydeuces. When Leda [5] had lain with the dark-clouded Son of Cronos, she bare them beneath the peak of the great hill Taygetus, —children who are deliverers of men on earth and of swift-going ships when stormy gales rage over the ruthless sea. Then the shipmen call upon the sons of great Zeus [10] with vows of white lambs, going to the forepart of the prow; but the strong wind and the waves of the sea lay the ship under water, until suddenly these two are seen darting through the air on tawny wings. Forthwith they allay the blasts of the cruel winds [15] and still the waves upon the surface of the white sea: fair signs are they and deliverance from toil. And when the shipmen see them they are glad and have rest from their pain and labour.

Hail, Tyndaridae, riders upon swift horses! Now I will remember you and another song also.

Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White

The Tyndaridae

The Homeric Hymns and Homerica


[1] Sing, clear-voiced Muse, of Castor and Polydeuces, the Tyndaridae, who sprang from Olympian Zeus. Beneath the heights of Taygetus stately Leda bare them, when the dark-clouded Son of Cronos had privily bent her to his will.[5] Hail, children of Tyndareus, riders upon swift horses!

Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White

Hymn To Asvins

Rig Veda

Book the First, Hymn III Asvins


1 YE Asvins, rich in treasure, Lords of splendour, having nimble hands,

Accept the sacrificial food.

2 Ye Asvins, rich in wondrous deeds, ye heroes worthy of our praise,

Accept our songs with mighty thought.

3 Nisatyas, wonder-workers, yours arc these libations with clipt grass:

Come ye whose paths are red with flame.

4 O Indra marvellously bright, come, these libations long for thee,

Thus by fine fingers purified.

5 Urged by the holy singer, sped by song, come, Indra, to the prayers,

Of the libation-pouring priest.

6 Approach, O Indra, hasting thee, Lord of Bay Horses, to the prayers.

In our libation take delight.

7 Ye Visvedevas, who protect, reward, and cherish men, approach

Translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith

Prayer to the Proto-Indo-European Divine Twins

Fathers of divine and

Human form, Zeus children

Lo! Castor and Pollux

Female mothers, sisters

Princess Madri, Saran

Rhea Silvia too

Gods of fertility

Horses of Gaul, Rome, Greece

Other lands also, two

Horses, riding or not

Hengist and Horsa, the

Germanic Alcis too

Saviors at sea, like

Asvins, Dioskouroi

Sky-god offspring, dieva

Deli in Latvian 

Lel and Polel, astral

Linked to Gemini too 

Protectors of oaths

Avestic Aspinas

Help in battles, Greek twins

Some magical healing

In ancient Italy’s

Valley there was Remus

Romulus, Roman kings

Armenian heroes

Sanasar, Baldasar

Motherly Saran drinks

The liquid, horse footprints

Oh mighty Divine Twins 

Founders of new cities

I call upon you now

Horse brothers, chariot 

Drivers, sons of Dyaus

From the fields, plains, and steppes

Eurasian, Indian,

European, Persian,

Giving aid on seas and

In wars and in danger

Healing and weather and

Oaths, births, fertility

Help us, Divine Twins, help. 

Short Prayer to the Proto-Indo-European Divine Twins

Horsemen, youthful, hear me

Try, save from danger please

From drowning on the sea

From martial attacks and

From diseases or pain

Sudden, at the time of

A conflict, mortal threat

Evil harm avert, block




  1. Anonymous. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White. Homeric Hymns. Cambridge, MA.,Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Last accessed August 15, 2022 <https://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0138%3Ahymn%3D33> <https://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0138%3Ahymn%3D17>
  2. Rig Veda, trans. Ralph T.H. Griffith, Britannica Online Encyclopedia and Project Gutenberg Consortia Center, 1896. Last accessed August 15, 2022. <https://cdn.britannica.com/primary_source/gutenberg/PGCC_classics/rigveda.htm#1_1_3>


Photo Credits

  1. A medieval battle. Photo by Midjourney. Prompt: medieval battle cloudy day. @david.k9
  2. A medieval battle. Photo by Midjourney. Prompt: medieval battle cloudy day. @david.k9
  3. A ship in a storm. Photo by Midjourney. Prompt: trireme, an ancient Greek ship, is in a big storm @david.k9a